Phosphofructokinase from the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica was purified from extracts of the whole organisms. The molecular weight of the protomer as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis is 83,000. Phosphorylation of the liver fluke phosphofructokinase by the catalytic subunit of CAMPdependent protein kinase occurred at a rate that was at least an order of magnitude greater than that observed with mammalian heart phosphofructokinase. The maximum level of phosphate incorporated was 0.22 mol P/mol of protomer. The kinetic properties of the enzyme were greatly altered as a result of phosphorylation. Compared to native enzyme, phosphorylated enzyme had a greater affinity for its substrate Fru-6-P and a decreased sensitivity to inhibition by ATP. These kinetic changes were similar to those of native enzyme in the presence of positive modifiers such as AMP. AMP also activated the phosphorylated enzyme. Activation of the phosphorylated enzyme by AMP was characterized by a further increase in affinity for Fru-6-P and a further decrease in se sitivity to ATP inhibition. Thus, the liver fluke phosphofructokinase can be modulated by covalent phosphorylation as well as noncovalent binding of different modifier ligands.
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