The objective of this study was to determine the effects of muscadine grape or wine (cv. Noble) phytochemicals on obesity and associated metabolic complications. Muscadine grape or wine phytochemicals were extracted using Amberlite FPX66 resin. Male C57BL/6J mice were given a low-fat diet (LF, 10% kcal fat), high-fat diet (HF, 60% kcal fat), HF + 0.4% muscadine grape phytochemicals (HF+MGP), or HF + 0.4% muscadine wine phytochemicals (HF+MWP) for 15 weeks. At 7 weeks, mice fed HF+MGP had significantly decreased body weights by 12% compared to HF controls. Dietary MGP or MWP supplementation reduced plasma content of free fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol in obese mice. Inflammation was alleviated, and activity of glutathione peroxidase was enhanced. Consumption of MGP or MWP improved insulin sensitivity and glucose control in mice. Thus, consumption of muscadine grape and wine phytochemicals in the diet may help to prevent obesity-related metabolic complications.
9 Figures and Tables
Table 1. Composition of Experimental Diets
Figure 1. Cumulative body weights of C57BL/6J mice (1−15 weeks): net body weight gains at weeks (A) 7 and (B) 15. HF, n = 8; other groups, n = 9.
Table 2. Antioxidant and Phytochemical Composition of Muscadine Grape or Wine Extractsa
Figure 2. (A) Histology of the epididymal adipose tissue, stained with hematoxylin and eosin; (B) histology of liver tissue, stained with Oil-red-O. Arrows indicate crown-like structures in adipose tissue.
Table 3. Food Intake, Energy Intake, and Weight of Epididymal Adipose Tissue and Livera
Figure 3. (A) Blood glucose levels in intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests at week 12; (B) area under curve of blood glucose for 2 h after a glucose challenge (n = 5).
Table 4. Effects of MGP and MWP on Glucose Homeostasis in C57BL/6J Micea
Figure 4. Plasma lipid levels of free fatty acids (A), total triglycerides (B), and total cholesterol (C) in C57BL/6J mice. HF, n = 8; other groups, n = 9.
Table 5. Effects of MGP and MWP on Plasma CRP and Glutathione Peroxidase Activitya
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